C-5 Galaxy: Aircraft profile

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The gigantic C-5 Galaxy, with its tremendous payload capability, provides the Air Mobility Command airlift in support of United States national defense.

C-5 Galaxy: SOUTHWEST ASIA -- A C-5 Galaxy takes off from an airfield at a forward-deployed location.C-5 Galaxy: SOUTHWEST ASIA -- A C-5 Galaxy takes off from an airfield at a forward-deployed location.

The C-5 can carry fully equipped combat-ready military units to any point in the world on short notice and then provide field support required to help sustain the fighting force.

Features

The C-5 is one of the largest aircraft in the world and the largest airlifter in the Air Force inventory. The C-5 can carry more than any other airlifter. It has the ability to carry 36 standard pallets and up to 81 troops simultaneously. The Galaxy also carries all of the Army's air-transportable combat equipment, including such bulky items as its 74-ton mobile scissors bridge from the United States to any theater of combat on the globe. It can also carry outsize and oversize cargo intercontinental ranges and can take off or land in relatively short distances. Ground crews are able to load and off-load the C-5 simultaneously at the front and rear cargo openings, reducing cargo transfer times. Other features of the C-5 are:

* Able to operate on runways 6,000 feet long (1,829 meters)

* Five landing gear totaling 28 wheels to distribute the weight.

* Nose and aft doors that open the full width and height of the cargo compartment to permit faster and easier loading.

* A "kneeling" landing gear system that permits lowering of the parked aircraft so the cargo floor is at truck-bed height or to facilitate vehicle loading and unloading.

* Full width drive-on ramps at each end for loading double rows of vehicles.

* A system that records and analyzes information and detects malfunctions in more than 800 test points.

The C-5 has the distinctive high T-tail, 25-degree wing sweep, and four TF39 turbofan engines mounted on pylons beneath the wings. These engines are rated at 43,000 pounds of thrust each, and weigh 7,900 pounds (3,555 kilograms) each. They have an air intake diameter of more than 8.5 feet (2.6 meters). Each engine pod is nearly 27 feet long (8.2 meters).

C-5 Galaxy: The Warner Robins Air Logistics Center at Robins Air Force Base, Ga., received the 2006 Franz Edelman Award for Achievement in Operations Research on Monday, May 1, 2006, for its use of operations research to streamline maintenance procedures for the C-5 Galaxy. Using innovative management processes, the time required to repair and overhaul the C-5 was reduced 33 percent. (U.S. Air Force photo/Sue Sapp)C-5 Galaxy: The Warner Robins Air Logistics Center at Robins Air Force Base, Ga., received the 2006 Franz Edelman Award for Achievement in Operations Research on Monday, May 1, 2006, for its use of operations research to streamline maintenance procedures for the C-5 Galaxy. Using innovative management processes, the time required to repair and overhaul the C-5 was reduced 33 percent. (U.S. Air Force photo/Sue Sapp)

The Galaxy has 12 internal wing tanks with a total capacity of 51,150 gallons (194,370 liters) of fuel -- enough to fill 6 1/2 regular size railroad tank cars. A full fuel load weighs 332,500 pounds (150,820 kilograms). A C-5 with a cargo load of 270,000 pounds (122,472 kilograms) can fly 2,150 nautical miles, offload, and fly to a second base 500 nautical miles away from the original destination -- all without aerial refueling. With aerial refueling, the aircraft's range is limited only by crew endurance.

Background

Lockheed-Georgia Co. delivered the first operational Galaxy to the 437th Airlift Wing, Charleston Air Force Base, S.C., in June l970. C-5s are operated by active-duty, Reserve, and Air National Guard crews. They are currently stationed at Dover AFB, Del.; Travis AFB, Calif.; Lackland AFB, Texas; Stewart Air National Guard Base, N.Y.; Martinsburg ANGB, W.V.; Memphis ANGB, Tenn.; Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio and Westover Air Reserve Base, Mass.

In March 1989, the last of 50 C-5B aircraft was added to the 76 C-5As in the Air Force's airlift force structure. The C-5B includes all C-5A improvements as well as more than 100 additional system modifications to improve reliability and maintainability.

Based on a study showing 80 percent of the C-5 airframe service life remaining, AMC began an aggressive program to modernize the C-5. The C-5 Avionics Modernization Program began in 1998 and includes upgrading avionics to Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management compliance, improving navigation, communication, and safety equipment, and installing a new autopilot system.

Another part of the modernization plan is a comprehensive Re-engining and Reliability Program, which includes new CF-6 engines, pylons and auxiliary power units, with upgrades to aircraft skin and frame, flight controls, landing gear and the pressurization system. This modernization program will enhance aircraft reliability and maintainability, maintain structural and system integrity, reduce cost of ownership and increase operational capability well into the 21st century.

C-5 Galaxy: SIGONELLA NAVAL AIR STATION, Sicily -- A Navy MH-53E Sea Dragon is unloaded from a C-5 Galaxy here March 14. (DOD photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class James K. McNeil)C-5 Galaxy: SIGONELLA NAVAL AIR STATION, Sicily -- A Navy MH-53E Sea Dragon is unloaded from a C-5 Galaxy here March 14. (DOD photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class James K. McNeil)

General Characteristics

Primary Function: Outsize cargo transport
Prime Contractor: Lockheed-Georgia Co.
Power Plant: Four General Electric TF-39 engines
Thrust: 43,000 pounds, each engine
Wingspan: 222.9 feet (67.89 meters)
Length: 247.1 feet (75.3 meters)
Height: 65.1 feet (19.84 meters)
Cargo Compartment: height , 13.5 feet (4.11 meters); width, 19 feet (5.79 meters); length, 143 feet, 9 in (43.8 meters)
Pallet Positions: 36
Maximum Cargo: 270,000 pounds (122,472 kilograms)
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 769,000 pounds (348,818 kilograms) (peacetime), 840,000 pounds (381,024 kilograms) (wartime)
Speed: 518 mph (.77 Mach)
Range: 6,320 nautical miles without air refueling; unlimited with in-flight refueling
Crew: 7 (pilot, co-pilot, two flight engineers and three loadmasters)
Unit Cost: C-5A - $152.8 million (fiscal 1998 constant dollars) C-5B - $179 million (fiscal 1998 constant dollars)
Deployed: C-5A - 1969, C-5B - 1980
Inventory: Total force, 111

Source: USAF

Detailed background:

Source: wikipedia

The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy is an American military transport aircraft built by Lockheed. It was designed to provide strategic heavy airlift over intercontinental distances and to carry outsize and oversize cargo. The C-5 Galaxy has been operated by the United States Air Force since 1969 and is one of the largest military aircraft in the world.

Development

Background

In 1961, several aircraft companies began studying heavy jet transport designs that would replace the C-133 transport and complement C-141 Starlifters. In addition to higher overall performance, the US Army wanted a transport with a larger cargo bay than the C-141, whose interior was too small to carry a variety of their outsized equipment. These studies led to the "CX-4" design concept, but in 1962 the proposed six-engine design was rejected, because it was not viewed as a significant advance over the C-141.

By late 1963, the next conceptual design was named CX-X. It was equipped with four engines, instead of six engines in the earlier CX-4 concept. The CX-X had a gross weight of 550,000 pounds (249,000 kg), a maximum payload of 180,000 pounds (81,600 kg) and a speed of Mach 0.75 (500 mph/805 km/h). The cargo compartment was 17.2 feet (5.24 m) wide by 13.5 feet (4.11 m) high and 100 feet (30.5 m) long with front and rear access doors. In order to provide the required power and range with only four engines, a new engine with dramatically improved fuel economy would be needed.

C-5 Galaxy: C-5 Galaxy, June 1970. (U.S. Air Force photo)C-5 Galaxy: C-5 Galaxy, June 1970. (U.S. Air Force photo)

The criteria were finalized and an official Request for Proposal was sent out in April 1964 for the "Heavy Logistics System" (CX-HLS) (previously CX-X). In May 1964, proposals for aircraft were received from Boeing, Douglas, General Dynamics, Lockheed, and Martin Marietta. Proposals for engines were received from General Electric, Curtiss-Wright Corporation, and Pratt & Whitney. After a downselect, Boeing, Douglas and Lockheed were given additional study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt and Whitney for the engines.

All three of the designs shared a number of features. In particular, all three placed the cockpit well above the cargo area so that in a crash the cargo would not crush the crew as it moved forward. The Boeing and Douglas designs used a "pod" on the top of the fuselage containing the cockpit, while the Lockheed design extended the cockpit line the length of the fuselage, giving it an egg-shaped cross section. All of the designs featured swept wings, T-tails, and front and rear cargo doors allowing simultaneous loading and unloading.

In 1965 Lockheed's aircraft design and General Electric's engine design were selected for the new transport. Into production

The first C-5A Galaxy (number 66-8303) was rolled out of the manufacturing plant in Marietta, Georgia on March 2, 1968. On June 30, 1968 Lockheed-Georgia Co. began flight testing its new Galaxy C-5A heavy transport with the aircraft's first flight taking to the air under the call-sign "eight-three O three heavy".

Upon completion of testing the first C-5A was transferred to the Transitional Training Unit at Altus Air Force Base, OK, in December 1969. Lockheed then delivered the first operational Galaxy to the 437th Airlift Wing, Charleston Air Force Base, SC, in June 1970.

In the early 1970s, the C-5 was considered for the role of Shuttle Carrier Aircraft to transport the Space Shuttle to Kennedy Space Center by NASA, but rejected in favor of the Boeing 747 due in part to the 747's low-wing design. In contrast, the Soviet Union chose to transport its shuttles using the high-winged An-225, which is derived from the An-124, which is very similar to the C-5 in terms of design and function.

During static and fatigue testing, cracks in the wings occurred before completion of testing. All C-5A aircraft were restricted to 80% of maximum design loads. To reduce wing loading, load alleviation systems were added to the aircraft. By 1980, payloads were restricted to as low as 50,000 lb (23,000 kg) for general cargo during peacetime operations. To restore full payload capability and service life, a program to rewing the 76 C-5As began in 1976. After design and testing of the new wing design, the C-5As received their new wings from 1980 to 1987.

The first C-5B was delivered to Altus Air Force Base in January 1986. In April 1989, the last of 50 C-5B aircraft was added to the 77 C-5As in the Air Force's airlift force structure. The C-5B includes all C-5A improvements and numerous additional system modifications to improve reliability and maintainability.

C-5 Galaxy: BAGHDAD, Iraq -- Seen through a hole in a window at Baghdad International Airport, a C-5 Galaxy sits on the ramp June 25. The aircraft deployed from Dover Air Force Base, Del., to support Operation Iraqi Freedom. (U.S. Air Force photo by Master Sgt. James M. Bowman)C-5 Galaxy: BAGHDAD, Iraq -- Seen through a hole in a window at Baghdad International Airport, a C-5 Galaxy sits on the ramp June 25. The aircraft deployed from Dover Air Force Base, Del., to support Operation Iraqi Freedom. (U.S. Air Force photo by Master Sgt. James M. Bowman)

In 1998, the Avionics Modernization Program (AMP) began upgrading the C-5's avionics to include a glass cockpit, navigation equipment, and a new autopilot system. Another part of the C-5 modernization effort is the Reliability Enhancement and Re-engining Program (RERP). The program will mainly replace the engines with newer, more powerful ones. Three C-5s are to undergo RERP as a test with full production planned to begin in May 2008. Design

The C-5 is a large high-wing cargo aircraft. It has a distinctive high T-tail, 25 degree wing sweep, and four TF39 turbofan engines mounted on pylons beneath the wings. The C-5 is similar in appearance to its smaller predecessor, the C-141 Starlifter. The C-5 has 12 internal wing tanks and is equipped for aerial refueling. It has both nose and aft doors for "drive-through" loading and unloading of cargo.

The C-5 features a cargo compartment 121 feet long, 13.5 feet high, and 19 feet wide (37 m by 4.1 m by 5.8 m), or just over 31,000 ft³ (880 m³). The compartment can accommodate up to 36 463L master pallets or a mix of palletized cargo and vehicles. The cargo hold of the C-5 is actually a foot longer than the length of the first powered flight by the Wright Brothers' flyer at Kitty Hawk. The nose and aft doors open the full width and height of the cargo compartment to permit faster and easier loading. Ramps are full width at each end for loading double rows of vehicles. The volume of unusable space in a C-5's tail assembly (aft of the ramp) is larger than the available cargo space of a C-130 Hercules.

It has an upper deck seating area for 73 passengers. The passengers face the rear of the aircraft, rather than forward. Its take off and landing distances, at maximum gross weight, are 8,300 ft (2,530 m) and 4,900 ft (1,490 m) respectively. Its high flotation landing gear has 28 wheels to share the weight. The "kneeling" landing gear system permits lowering of the parked aircraft so the cargo floor is at truck-bed height to facilitate vehicle loading and unloading.

The C-5 has a MADAR (Malfunction Detection Analysis and Recording), a system that records and analyzes information and detects malfunctions in more than 800 test points. The C-5 is also known as "FRED" (Fucking Ridiculous Economic/Environmental Disaster) by its crews due to its maintenance/reliability issues and large consumption of fuel. The C-5 requires an average of 16 hours of maintenance for each flight hour based on 1996 data.

The Galaxy is capable of carrying nearly all of the Army's combat equipment, including bulky items such as the 74 ton armored vehicle launched bridge (AVLB), from the United States to any location on the globe. Operational history

The first C-5A was delivered to the USAF on 17 December 1969. Wings were built up in the early 1970s at Altus AFB, OK; Charleston AFB, Dover AFB, DE; and Travis AFB, CA. July 9, 1970 marked the C-5's first mission in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. Through the rest of the war, C-5s were used to transport equipment and troops. Equipment included Army tanks, and various aircraft. C-5s also delivered weapons and supplies to Israel as part of Operation Nickel Grass in 1973.

During the 1980s the C-5As were re-winged to restore full design capability. The US Air Force took delivery of the first C-5B on 28 December 1985 and the final one in April 1989.

The C-5 is the largest aircraft to ever operate in the Antarctic. Williams Field near McMurdo Station is capable of handling C-5 aircraft and the first C-5 landed there in 1989.

C-5 Galaxy: A U.S. Marine Corps CH-53E Super Stallion is offloaded from an Air Force C-5 Galaxy at the Djibouti Airport in Djibouti, Africa, Friday, March 3, 2006. (U.S. Air Force photo/Staff Sgt. Nic Raven)C-5 Galaxy: A U.S. Marine Corps CH-53E Super Stallion is offloaded from an Air Force C-5 Galaxy at the Djibouti Airport in Djibouti, Africa, Friday, March 3, 2006. (U.S. Air Force photo/Staff Sgt. Nic Raven)

Fourteen C-5As have been retired as of 2005. Aircraft number 69-0004 was the first, sent to the Warner-Robins Air Logistics Center (ALC) for tear down and inspection. Data from inspection will be used to evaluate structural integrity and estimate remaining fleet lifespan. Thirteen C-5As were sent to the Air Force's Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Center (AMARC) for inspection. At AMARC, 66-8306 underwent tear down and inspection similar to 69-0004 at WR-ALC. The remaining 12 will eventually be reclaimed as destructive inspection is performed on the airframes to test for corrosion and fatigue.

Sources have cited that the Air Force might be looking to replace some of these aircraft and have expressed interest in a military version of the new Airbus A380.

Variants

C-5A

The C-5A is the original version of the C-5. From 1969 to 1973, 81 C-5As were delivered to US Air Forces bases. Due to cracks found in the wings in the mid-1970s, the cargo weight was restricted. To restore the plane's full capability, the wing structure was redesigned. A program to install new strengthened wings on 77 C-5As was conducted from 1981 to 1987. The redesigned wing made use of a new aluminum alloy that didn't exist during the original production.

C-5B

The C-5B is an improved version of the C-5A. It incorporated all modifications and improvements made to the C-5A with improved wings, upgraded TF-39-GE-1C turbofan engines and updated avionics. From 1986 to 1989, 50 of the new variant were delivered to the US Air Force.

C-5C

The C-5C is a specially modified variant for transporting large cargo. Two C-5s (68-0213 and 68-0216) were modified to have a larger internal cargo capacity to accommodate large payloads, such as satellites for use by NASA. The major modifications were the removal of the rear passenger compartment floor, splitting the rear cargo door in the middle, and installing a new movable aft bulkhead further to the rear. Modifications also included adding a second inlet for ground power which can then be used to feed any power-dependent equipment which may form part of the cargo. The two C-5Cs are operated by US Air Force crews on the behalf of NASA, and are stationed at Travis AFB, CA. 68-0216 completed the Avionics Modernization Program in January 2007.

C-5 Galaxy: A C-5 Galaxy from the Air Force Reserve Command's 433rd Airlift Wing is ready to depart a deployed location on another mission supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom. (U.S. Air Force photo/Capt. Jeremy Angel)C-5 Galaxy: A C-5 Galaxy from the Air Force Reserve Command's 433rd Airlift Wing is ready to depart a deployed location on another mission supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom. (U.S. Air Force photo/Capt. Jeremy Angel)

C-5M

Based on a recent study showing 80% of the C-5 airframe service life remaining, AMC began an aggressive program to modernize all remaining C-5Bs and C-5Cs and many of the C-5As. The C-5 Avionics Modernization Program (AMP) began in 1998 and includes upgrading avionics to Global Air Traffic Management compliance, improving communications, new flat panel displays, improving navigation and safety equipment, and installing a new autopilot system. The first flight of the first modified C-5 with AMP(85-0004) occurred on December 21, 2002.

Another part of the plan is a comprehensive Reliability Enhancement and Re-engining Program (RERP), which includes new General Electric CF6-80C2 engines, pylons and auxiliary power units, with upgrades to aircraft skin and frame, landing gear, cockpit and the pressurization system. The CF6 engine produces 22% more thrust (for a total of 54,000 lb (240 kN) from each engine) than existing C-5 engines which will result in a 30% shorter take-off roll, a 38% higher climb rate to initial altitude, a significantly increased cargo load, and a longer range between refueling. The C-5s that complete these upgrades are designated C-5M Super Galaxy.

The C-5 AMP and RERP modernization programs plan to raise mission-capable rate to a minimum goal of 75%. Over the next 40 years, the U.S. Air Force estimates the C-5M will save over US$20 billion. The first of 111 planned C-5M conversions was completed on May 16, 2006, and performed its first flight on June 19, 2006.

C-5Ms have been in flight testing out of Dobbins Air Reserve Base since June 2006. Two of the three (86-0013 and 86-0025) aircraft may be identified by the distinctive colored nose boom used to acquire test data. As of February 2008, the USAF will convert all remaining C-5Bs and C-5Cs into C-5M with avionics upgrades and re-engining. The C-5As will receive only the avionics upgrades.

Incidents and accidents

There have been five C-5 Galaxy aircraft lost in crashes along with two class-A losses resulting from ground fire and one loss resulting from damage sustained on the ground. There have been at least two other C-5 crashes that resulted in major airframe damage, but the aircraft were repaired and returned to service.

Notable accidents

* Aircraft 67-0172 (C-5A) was destroyed during a ground fire at Palmdale, California on May 25, 1970 after an ATM (Air Turbine Motor) started backwards and quickly overheated, setting the hydraulic system on fire and quickly consuming the aircraft. The engines were not running at the time of the fire and no one was injured.

* Aircraft 66-8303 (C-5A) was destroyed during a ground fire at Marietta, Ga. on October 17, 1970. The fire started during maintenance in one of the aircraft's 12 huge fuel cells. One worker was killed and another injured. This was the first C-5 aircraft produced.

* Aircraft 68-0227 (C-5A) was the first operational loss of a C-5 Galaxy. On September 27, 1974 the aircraft crashed after over-running the runway at Clinton, Oklahoma Municipal Airport during an emergency landing following a serious landing gear fire. The crew mistakenly aligned the aircraft for the visual approach into the wrong airport, landing at Clinton Municipal which has a 4,400 ft (1340 m) runway, instead of Clinton-Sherman airfield which has a 13,500 ft (4115 m) runway.

* Aircraft 68-0218 (C-5A) was involved in one of the most well known C-5 accident to date. On April 4, 1975, the aircraft crashed while carrying orphans out of Vietnam (Operation Baby Lift). The crash occurred while trying to make an emergency landing at Tan Son Nhut Air Base Saigon, following a door lock failure in flight. 144 adults and children (including 76 babies) were killed out of the 305 aboard (243 children, 44 escorts, 16 crewmen and 2 flight nurses).

C-5 Galaxy: Emergency responders are on the scene of a C-5 Galaxy crash today, April 3, 2006 at Dover Air Force Base, Del. (U.S. Air Force photo/Doug Curran)C-5 Galaxy: Emergency responders are on the scene of a C-5 Galaxy crash today, April 3, 2006 at Dover Air Force Base, Del. (U.S. Air Force photo/Doug Curran)

* Aircraft 70-0446 (C-5A) crashed on landing at Shemya AK on 31 July 1983. No fatalities. The airplane approached below the glideslope, hit an embankment short of the runway and bounced back into the air before coming to rest on the runway. Structural damage was extensive. The airplane keel and two structural mainframes were broken, and the two aft main landing gear bogies were sheared from the airplane (one remaining in the embankment, the other pushed up through the fuselage and came to rest inside the cargo compartment. A joint USAF/Lockheed team made repairs enabling a one-time ferry flight from Shemya to the Lockheed plant in Marietta, Ga. In Marietta, the airplane was quickly christened “Phoenix II” and permanent repair efforts got underway. In addition to the structural repairs, “Phoenix II” also received an improved landing gear system (common to the then-new C-5B), wing modification, and a color weather radar upgrade. The airplane was returned to service, and was transferred to the Texas Air National Guard.

* Aircraft 68-0216 (C-5A) from Travis Air Force Base landed wheels up at Kelly AFB, July 1985. No injuries. The accident occurred while the crew was performing touch-and-go landings, the cause being a failure to lower the landing gear during the final approach of the day. The aircraft received significant damage to the lower fuselage and main landing gear pods. The C-5A was flown to Marietta, Ga. for repairs. While in Marietta, the aircraft was selected to be the first C-5A converted to the C-5C configuration.

* Aircraft 68-0228 (C-5A) crashed following an engine failure shortly after take-off. On August 29, 1990, the aircraft took off from Ramstein Air Base in Germany in support of Desert Shield. It was flown by a 9-member reserve crew (who had all volunteered to fly the mission) from the 68th Airlift Squadron, 433d Airlift Wing based at Kelly AFB, Texas. As the aircraft started to climb off the runway, one of the thrust reversers suddenly deployed. This resulted in loss of control of the aircraft and the subsequent crash. Of the 17 people on board, only 4 survived the crash. All four were in the rear troop compartment. The sole crewman to survive, Staff Sgt Lorenzo Galvan Jr, was awarded the Airman's Medal for his actions in evacuating the survivors from the wreckage.

* Aircraft 84-0059 (C-5B) crashed after an in-flight emergency involving an indication that a thrust reverser was not locked. On April 3, 2006, the aircraft, assigned to the 436th Airlift Wing and flown by a reserve crew from the 709th Airlift Squadron, 512th Airlift Wing crashed about 2000 ft (610 m) short of runway 32, while attempting a heavyweight emergency landing at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The airplane, carrying 17 people, had taken off from Dover about 21 minutes earlier and reported an in-flight emergency (number 2 engine thrust reverser not locked indication) 10 minutes into the flight. All 17 aboard survived, 15 with no injuries, 2 with serious. The Air Force's accident investigation concluded the crash was a result of human error, most notably the determination that the crew kept one of the functioning engines in flight idle while manipulating the throttle of the (dead) number 2 engine as if it was still running, while having the no.3 engine at idle, an error that was further amplified by the crew's decision to use a high flap setting that increased drag beyond normal 2 engine performance capabilities. The forward fuselage will be converted into a C-5 AMP avionics test bed, and the rest of the airframe has been scrapped.

More photos:

C-5 Galaxy: The first C-5B Galaxy aircraft to be delivered to the US Air Force takes off after its roll-out ceremony at the Lockheed-Georgia facility.C-5 Galaxy: The first C-5B Galaxy aircraft to be delivered to the US Air Force takes off after its roll-out ceremony at the Lockheed-Georgia facility.

C-5 Galaxy: A member of the 316th Organizational Maintenance Squadron directs a 68th Military Airlift Squadron C-5 Galaxy aircraft to a parking spot on the flight line. The Galaxy is transporting materiel to the air base from Kelly Air Force Base, Texas.C-5 Galaxy: A member of the 316th Organizational Maintenance Squadron directs a 68th Military Airlift Squadron C-5 Galaxy aircraft to a parking spot on the flight line. The Galaxy is transporting materiel to the air base from Kelly Air Force Base, Texas.

C-5 Galaxy: A right front view of a C-5 Galaxy aircraft approaching for a landing.C-5 Galaxy: A right front view of a C-5 Galaxy aircraft approaching for a landing.

C-5 Galaxy: Air to air close-up front view of Air Mobility Command's 60th Military Airlift Wing's C-5 Galaxy on a training mission out of Travis AFB, California. Exact Date Shot UnknownC-5 Galaxy: Air to air close-up front view of Air Mobility Command's 60th Military Airlift Wing's C-5 Galaxy on a training mission out of Travis AFB, California. Exact Date Shot Unknown

C-5 Galaxy: Air to air view of a Military Airlift Command C-5 Galaxy from the 60th Military Airlift Wing flying with the Golden Gate Bridge and San Francisco, California in the background. Exact Date Shot UnknownC-5 Galaxy: Air to air view of a Military Airlift Command C-5 Galaxy from the 60th Military Airlift Wing flying with the Golden Gate Bridge and San Francisco, California in the background. Exact Date Shot Unknown

C-5 Galaxy: A C-5A Galaxy aircraft takes off from Viru Viru Airport during FUERZAS UNIDAS BOLIVIA, a joint US and Bolivan training exercise.C-5 Galaxy: A C-5A Galaxy aircraft takes off from Viru Viru Airport during FUERZAS UNIDAS BOLIVIA, a joint US and Bolivan training exercise.

C-5 Galaxy: A C-5 Galaxy aircraft takes off during exercise Cabanas '86.C-5 Galaxy: A C-5 Galaxy aircraft takes off during exercise Cabanas '86.

C-5 Galaxy: Air to air view of Air Mobility Wing's 60th Airlift Wing C-5 Galaxy flying over the high Sierra Mountains of northern California. Exact Date Shot Unknown.C-5 Galaxy: Air to air view of Air Mobility Wing's 60th Airlift Wing C-5 Galaxy flying over the high Sierra Mountains of northern California. Exact Date Shot Unknown.

C-5 Galaxy: A C-5 Galaxy aircraft from the 436th Military Squadron takes off for the United States. US troops, including members of the 7th Light Infantry Division and the 82nd Airborne Division, spent two weeks participating in a mobilization of US Exercise Task Force DRAGON/GOLDEN PHEASANT. The task force was deployed by President Ronald Reagan to help discourage Nicaraguan forces from entering Honduras.C-5 Galaxy: A C-5 Galaxy aircraft from the 436th Military Squadron takes off for the United States. US troops, including members of the 7th Light Infantry Division and the 82nd Airborne Division, spent two weeks participating in a mobilization of US Exercise Task Force DRAGON/GOLDEN PHEASANT. The task force was deployed by President Ronald Reagan to help discourage Nicaraguan forces from entering Honduras.

C-5 Galaxy: Air to air front view of a Air Mobility Command's 60th Military Airlift Wing's C-5 Galaxy as it takes off from Travis AFB, California. Exact Date Shot UnknownC-5 Galaxy: Air to air front view of a Air Mobility Command's 60th Military Airlift Wing's C-5 Galaxy as it takes off from Travis AFB, California. Exact Date Shot Unknown

C-5 Galaxy: Air to air top front view of Air Mobility Command's 60th Airlift Wing C-5 Galaxy flying the Sacramento delta comes in for a ladning at Travis AFB, California. Exact Date Shot UnknownC-5 Galaxy: Air to air top front view of Air Mobility Command's 60th Airlift Wing C-5 Galaxy flying the Sacramento delta comes in for a ladning at Travis AFB, California. Exact Date Shot Unknown

C-5 Galaxy: Air to air top front view of Air Mobility Command's 60th Airlift Wing C-5 Galaxy and C-141 Starlifter flying a training mission formation over the northern California coast line north of San Francisco, California. Exact Date Shot UnknownC-5 Galaxy: Air to air top front view of Air Mobility Command's 60th Airlift Wing C-5 Galaxy and C-141 Starlifter flying a training mission formation over the northern California coast line north of San Francisco, California. Exact Date Shot Unknown

C-5 Galaxy: A 60th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft carrying a Cardwell-500 drilling rig takes off from the flight line on its trip to the Soviet Union. The rig will be flown to Semipalatinsk, USSR, where it will be used to drill a satellite hole that will enable Department of Energy contractor personnel to monitor the kiloton yield of Soviet atomic tests. Monitoring will take place in compliance with the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union.C-5 Galaxy: A 60th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft carrying a Cardwell-500 drilling rig takes off from the flight line on its trip to the Soviet Union. The rig will be flown to Semipalatinsk, USSR, where it will be used to drill a satellite hole that will enable Department of Energy contractor personnel to monitor the kiloton yield of Soviet atomic tests. Monitoring will take place in compliance with the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union.

C-5 Galaxy: A C-5 Galaxy aircraft from the 436th Military Squadron takes off for the United States. US troops, including members of the 7th Light Infantry Division and the 82nd Airborne Division, spent two weeks participating in a mobilization of US Exercise Task Force DRAGON/GOLDEN PHEASANT. The task force was deployed by President Ronald Reagan to help discourage Nicaraguan forces from entering Honduras.C-5 Galaxy: A C-5 Galaxy aircraft from the 436th Military Squadron takes off for the United States. US troops, including members of the 7th Light Infantry Division and the 82nd Airborne Division, spent two weeks participating in a mobilization of US Exercise Task Force DRAGON/GOLDEN PHEASANT. The task force was deployed by President Ronald Reagan to help discourage Nicaraguan forces from entering Honduras.

C-5 Galaxy: The US Air Force Thunderbird Aerial Demonstration Team executes a practice flight over a 60th Marine Air Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft which is being loaded with Cardwell-500 drilling rig equipment. The rig will be flown to Semipalatinsk, USSR, where it will be used to drill a satellite hole that will enable Department of Energy contractor personnel to monitor the kiloton yield of Soviet atomic tests. Monitoring will take place in compliance with the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union.C-5 Galaxy: The US Air Force Thunderbird Aerial Demonstration Team executes a practice flight over a 60th Marine Air Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft which is being loaded with Cardwell-500 drilling rig equipment. The rig will be flown to Semipalatinsk, USSR, where it will be used to drill a satellite hole that will enable Department of Energy contractor personnel to monitor the kiloton yield of Soviet atomic tests. Monitoring will take place in compliance with the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union.

C-5 Galaxy: A 60th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft taxies past parts of a Cardwell-500 drilling rig which the aircraft will transport to the Soviet Union. The rig will be flown to Semipalatinsk, USSR, where it will be used to drill a satellite hole that will enable Department of Energy contractor personnel to monitor the kiloton yield of Soviet atomic tests. Monitoring will take place in compliance with the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union.C-5 Galaxy: A 60th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft taxies past parts of a Cardwell-500 drilling rig which the aircraft will transport to the Soviet Union. The rig will be flown to Semipalatinsk, USSR, where it will be used to drill a satellite hole that will enable Department of Energy contractor personnel to monitor the kiloton yield of Soviet atomic tests. Monitoring will take place in compliance with the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union.

C-5 Galaxy: A 436th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft en route to Fort Bragg, N.C., is followed by a T-28B Trojan aircraft assigned to the Army's Airborne Special Operations Test Board. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.C-5 Galaxy: A 436th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft en route to Fort Bragg, N.C., is followed by a T-28B Trojan aircraft assigned to the Army's Airborne Special Operations Test Board. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.

C-5 Galaxy: An air-to-air front view of a C-5B Galaxy aircraft from the 22nd Military Airlift Squadron in-flight over the coastline.C-5 Galaxy: An air-to-air front view of a C-5B Galaxy aircraft from the 22nd Military Airlift Squadron in-flight over the coastline.

C-5 Galaxy: An air-to-air front view of a C-5B Galaxy aircraft from the 22nd Military Airlift Squadron.C-5 Galaxy: An air-to-air front view of a C-5B Galaxy aircraft from the 22nd Military Airlift Squadron.

C-5 Galaxy: An air-to-air front view of a C-5B Galaxy aircraft of the 22nd Military Airlift Squadron as seen from the cargo door of a C-141B Starlifter.C-5 Galaxy: An air-to-air front view of a C-5B Galaxy aircraft of the 22nd Military Airlift Squadron as seen from the cargo door of a C-141B Starlifter.

C-5 Galaxy: Parachutists exit a 436th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft as a T-28B Trojan aircraft assigned to the Army's Airborne Special Operations Test Board flies nearby. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.C-5 Galaxy: Parachutists exit a 436th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft as a T-28B Trojan aircraft assigned to the Army's Airborne Special Operations Test Board flies nearby. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.

C-5 Galaxy: An air-to-air front view of a C-5B Galaxy aircraft of the 22nd Military Airlift Squadron, foreground, and a C-141B Starlifter aircraft from the 86th Military Airlift Squadron in formation over San Francisco Bay.C-5 Galaxy: An air-to-air front view of a C-5B Galaxy aircraft of the 22nd Military Airlift Squadron, foreground, and a C-141B Starlifter aircraft from the 86th Military Airlift Squadron in formation over San Francisco Bay.

C-5 Galaxy: An air-to-air view of a C-141B Starlifter aircraft from the 86th Military Airlift Squadron, foreground, and a C-5B Galaxy aircraft of the 22nd Military Airlift Squadron in formation.C-5 Galaxy: An air-to-air view of a C-141B Starlifter aircraft from the 86th Military Airlift Squadron, foreground, and a C-5B Galaxy aircraft of the 22nd Military Airlift Squadron in formation.

C-5 Galaxy: Four M-551 Sheridan light tanks are dropped from the rear of a 436th Military Airlift Squadron C-5B Galaxy aircraft as a second Galaxy aircraft drops pallets of equipment. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.C-5 Galaxy: Four M-551 Sheridan light tanks are dropped from the rear of a 436th Military Airlift Squadron C-5B Galaxy aircraft as a second Galaxy aircraft drops pallets of equipment. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.

C-5 Galaxy: An M-551 Sheridan light tank is dropped from the rear of a 436th Military Airlift Squadron C-5B Galaxy aircraft over the Sicily drop zone. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.C-5 Galaxy: An M-551 Sheridan light tank is dropped from the rear of a 436th Military Airlift Squadron C-5B Galaxy aircraft over the Sicily drop zone. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.

C-5 Galaxy: Two C-5B Galaxy aircraft from the 436th Military Airlift Wing roll down a taxiway prior to departing on a personnel and equipment airdrop mission. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.C-5 Galaxy: Two C-5B Galaxy aircraft from the 436th Military Airlift Wing roll down a taxiway prior to departing on a personnel and equipment airdrop mission. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.

C-5 Galaxy: Two groups of paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division drift to the ground after jumping from a pair of 436th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft over Sicily drop zone. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.C-5 Galaxy: Two groups of paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division drift to the ground after jumping from a pair of 436th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft over Sicily drop zone. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.

C-5 Galaxy: A C-5A Galaxy aircraft arrives at the airfield to pick up equipment which will be used during firefighting efforts in Yellowstone National Park, Wyo.C-5 Galaxy: A C-5A Galaxy aircraft arrives at the airfield to pick up equipment which will be used during firefighting efforts in Yellowstone National Park, Wyo.

C-5 Galaxy: Two groups of paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division jump from a pair of 436th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft over the Sicily drop zone. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.C-5 Galaxy: Two groups of paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division jump from a pair of 436th Military Airlift Wing C-5B Galaxy aircraft over the Sicily drop zone. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.

C-5 Galaxy: Two C-5B Galaxy aircraft from the 436th Military Airlift Wing depart on a personnel and equipment airdrop mission. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.C-5 Galaxy: Two C-5B Galaxy aircraft from the 436th Military Airlift Wing depart on a personnel and equipment airdrop mission. The U.S. Air Force Airlift Center is conducting tests to certify the airdrop, formation-flying and low-level flight capabilities of Galaxy aircraft. Earlier tests were suspended in 1973 when wing-strength problems were discovered in Galaxy aircraft.

C-5 Galaxy: A Military Airlift Command C-5B Galaxy aircraft is parked on the flight line as another Galaxy comes in for a landing. The aircraft are stopping over on the island after transporting Finnish United Nations troops to Namibia to function as a peacekeeping force.C-5 Galaxy: A Military Airlift Command C-5B Galaxy aircraft is parked on the flight line as another Galaxy comes in for a landing. The aircraft are stopping over on the island after transporting Finnish United Nations troops to Namibia to function as a peacekeeping force.

C-5 Galaxy: A C-5A Galaxy aircraft stirs up snow clouds as it taxis on the flight line during the joint service exercise Brim Frost '89.C-5 Galaxy: A C-5A Galaxy aircraft stirs up snow clouds as it taxis on the flight line during the joint service exercise Brim Frost '89.

C-5 Galaxy: A ground crew member signals the pilot of a C-5A Galaxy aircraft as it arrives on base during the joint service exercise Brim Frost '89.C-5 Galaxy: A ground crew member signals the pilot of a C-5A Galaxy aircraft as it arrives on base during the joint service exercise Brim Frost '89.

C-5 Galaxy: A 60th Military Airlift Wing C-5A Galaxy aircraft sits on the flight line after transporting troops to the base to take part in the joint service exercise Brim Frost '89.C-5 Galaxy: A 60th Military Airlift Wing C-5A Galaxy aircraft sits on the flight line after transporting troops to the base to take part in the joint service exercise Brim Frost '89.

C-5 Galaxy: An Air Force C-5A Galaxy transport aircraft from the 60th Military Airlift Wing lifts off of the runway for its return flight to Travis Air Force Base, Calif. The aircraft had brought Marines of the 5th Marine Regiment from Camp Pendleton, Calif., to the park to aid in the firefighting efforts there. An M-1008 cargo truck is in the foreground.C-5 Galaxy: An Air Force C-5A Galaxy transport aircraft from the 60th Military Airlift Wing lifts off of the runway for its return flight to Travis Air Force Base, Calif. The aircraft had brought Marines of the 5th Marine Regiment from Camp Pendleton, Calif., to the park to aid in the firefighting efforts there. An M-1008 cargo truck is in the foreground.

C-5 Galaxy: A C-5 Galaxy aircraft makes its final landing approach during the joint service Exercise Nimrod Dancer.C-5 Galaxy: A C-5 Galaxy aircraft makes its final landing approach during the joint service Exercise Nimrod Dancer.

C-5 Galaxy: Pallets of supplies are offloaded from a Military Airlift Command C-5B Galaxy aircraft at Grootfontein Logistics Base. The Galaxy is also transporting Finish United Nations troops which will act as a peacekeeping force in Namibia.C-5 Galaxy: Pallets of supplies are offloaded from a Military Airlift Command C-5B Galaxy aircraft at Grootfontein Logistics Base. The Galaxy is also transporting Finish United Nations troops which will act as a peacekeeping force in Namibia.

C-5 Galaxy: TSGT Samual West of the 35th Aerial Port Squadron marshals an M-998 high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles into C-5A Galaxy aircraft at the end of exercise Solid Shield '89. The exercise is being conducted on the East Coast by approximately 30,000 military personnel from all services.C-5 Galaxy: TSGT Samual West of the 35th Aerial Port Squadron marshals an M-998 high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles into C-5A Galaxy aircraft at the end of exercise Solid Shield '89. The exercise is being conducted on the East Coast by approximately 30,000 military personnel from all services.

C-5 Galaxy: Surrounded by blowing dust, a 709th Military Airlift Squadron (709th MAS) C-5B Galaxy aircraft sits on the tarmac at Chaklala air base. Two 709th MAS aircraft have landed at the base to deliver a Bailey Bridge that will be passed on to an Afghan guerrilla group that will use the portable bridge to span the Konar River outside of Jalalabad, Afghanistan.C-5 Galaxy: Surrounded by blowing dust, a 709th Military Airlift Squadron (709th MAS) C-5B Galaxy aircraft sits on the tarmac at Chaklala air base. Two 709th MAS aircraft have landed at the base to deliver a Bailey Bridge that will be passed on to an Afghan guerrilla group that will use the portable bridge to span the Konar River outside of Jalalabad, Afghanistan.

C-5 Galaxy: A C-5A Galaxy aircraft takes on equipment from Marine Strike-Fighter Squadron 531 (VMFA-531).C-5 Galaxy: A C-5A Galaxy aircraft takes on equipment from Marine Strike-Fighter Squadron 531 (VMFA-531).

C-5 Galaxy: Civilian workers and U.S. military personnel load one of several UH-1 Iroquois helicopters aboard a 936th Military Airlift Wing C-5 Galaxy aircraft. The helicopters are being transported to Bogota, Colombia as part of Operation Pour Over, a U.S. effort to aid the Colombian governmentC-5 Galaxy: Civilian workers and U.S. military personnel load one of several UH-1 Iroquois helicopters aboard a 936th Military Airlift Wing C-5 Galaxy aircraft. The helicopters are being transported to Bogota, Colombia as part of Operation Pour Over, a U.S. effort to aid the Colombian government

C-5 Galaxy: A left side view of a C-5A Galaxy aircraft in flight near Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina.C-5 Galaxy: A left side view of a C-5A Galaxy aircraft in flight near Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina.

C-5 Galaxy: A left side view of a C-5A Galaxy aircraft in flight near Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina.C-5 Galaxy: A left side view of a C-5A Galaxy aircraft in flight near Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina.

C-5 Galaxy: Forklifts are used to unload cargo from a C-5B Galaxy aircraft following its landing on the ice runway near McMurdo Station during Operation Deep Freeze '90. The Galaxy is the second such aircraft to land on the runway, which is over 10,000 feet long and was scraped from ice over eight feet deep.C-5 Galaxy: Forklifts are used to unload cargo from a C-5B Galaxy aircraft following its landing on the ice runway near McMurdo Station during Operation Deep Freeze '90. The Galaxy is the second such aircraft to land on the runway, which is over 10,000 feet long and was scraped from ice over eight feet deep.

C-5 Galaxy: A C-5B Galaxy aircraft lands on the ice runway near McMurdo Station during Operation Deep Freeze '90. The Galaxy is the second such aircraft to land on the runway, which is over 10,000 feet long and was scraped from ice over eight feet deep.C-5 Galaxy: A C-5B Galaxy aircraft lands on the ice runway near McMurdo Station during Operation Deep Freeze '90. The Galaxy is the second such aircraft to land on the runway, which is over 10,000 feet long and was scraped from ice over eight feet deep.

C-5 Galaxy: A C-5A Galaxy aircraft takes off in the rain as it deploys to Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Shield.C-5 Galaxy: A C-5A Galaxy aircraft takes off in the rain as it deploys to Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Shield.

More photos: C-5 Galaxy photo gallery

In 1989 213 and 216 where attached to the 433rd AW. During this time only 12 person where sent to Lockheed for the mod. I being one of the first persons to work on 213 and 216. During Desert Storm I flow in 216 into country several times. We at the 433rd AW called the SCM for Space Cargo Mod. I was there for the container being fitted and also for the first flight with the container. Travis got the aircraft after the people like me proofed that the aircraft could do the job it was made to do. The 433rd AW owned those aircraft from 1988 till Travis took them in 1994.

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