North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: Aircraft profile

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The OV-10A was a twin-turboprop short takeoff and landing aircraft conceived by the U.S. Marine Corps and developed under a U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps tri-service program.

North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: A right underside view of an OV-10 Bronco aircraft from the 22nd Tactical Air Support Squadron (TASS). The aircraft is being deployed to Korea to participate in exercise Team Spirit '84.North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: A right underside view of an OV-10 Bronco aircraft from the 22nd Tactical Air Support Squadron (TASS). The aircraft is being deployed to Korea to participate in exercise Team Spirit '84.

The first production OV-10A was ordered in 1966, and its initial flight took place in August 1967.

The Bronco's missions included observation, forward air control, helicopter escort, armed reconnaissance, gunfire spotting, utility and limited ground attack. The USAF, however, acquired the Bronco primarily as a forward air control (FAC) aircraft. Adding to its versatility is a rear fuselage compartment with a capacity of 3,200 pounds of cargo, five combat-equipped troops or two litter patients and a medical attendant.

The first USAF OV-10As destined for combat arrived in Vietnam in July 1968. A total of 157 OV-10As were delivered to the USAF before production ended in April 1969.

Technical notes:

Armament: Four M-60C 7.62mm machine guns in fuselage, plus 3,600 lbs. of external stores

Engines: Two Garrett-AiResearch T76 turboprops of 715 shaft hp each

Maximum speed: 281 mph

Cruising speed: 223 mph

Range: 1,240 miles

Ceiling: 26,000 ft.

Span: 40 ft.

Length: 41 ft. 7 in.

Height: 15 ft. 1 in.

Weight: 14,444 lbs. maximum

Source: US Air Force

North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: An air-to-air right side view of an OV-10 Bronco aircraft firing a white phosphorous smoke rocket to mark a ground target. The aircraft is used by forward air controllers in support of ground troops. Photo from November 84 Airman Magazine.North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: An air-to-air right side view of an OV-10 Bronco aircraft firing a white phosphorous smoke rocket to mark a ground target. The aircraft is used by forward air controllers in support of ground troops. Photo from November 84 Airman Magazine.

Detailed background:

Source: wikipedia.org

The North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco is a turboprop-driven light attack and observation aircraft. It was developed in the 1960s as a special aircraft for COIN (counter insurgency) combat, and one of its primary missions was as a forward air control (FAC) aircraft. It can carry up to three tons of external munitions, and easily loiters for three or more hours.

Development

The original vision was developed by an informal collaboration of W.H. Beckett and Col. K.P. Rice, who met at China Lake Naval Test Station. It was for a rugged, simple close air support aircraft integrated with forward ground operations. At the time, the Army had not yet developed armed helicopters, and the Air Force was uninterested in close air support.

The aircraft was to operate from expedient forward air bases using roads as runways. Even in jungles, roads would be available. So, it needed a 20 ft wing span and a 6.5 ft tread. Speed was to range from very slow, to medium subsonic, with much longer loiter times than a jet. Efficient turboprop engines would give better performance than piston aircraft. Weapons were to be mounted on the centerline to get efficient unranged aiming like a P-38. The inventors' favored strafing weapons were self-loading recoilless rifles, which could deliver aimed explosive shells with less recoil than cannons, and a lower per-round weight than rockets. The airframe would avoid the back blast.

They developed a basic platform meeting the requirements, then attempted to build a fiberglass prototype in a garage. The effort produced enthusiastic supporters and an informal pamphlet describing the concept. W.H. Beckett retired from the Marine Corps, and went to work at North American to sell the aircraft.

Rice states: "The military definition of STOL (500' to a 50' obstacle) allows takeoff and landing in most of the areas in which limited war might be fought. In addition, the airplane was designed to use roads so that operation would even be possible in jungle areas where clearings are few and far between. As a result the wingspan was to be limited to twenty feet and a heavy trailing arm type landing gear with a tread of 6.5 ft was provided for operation from roads. Float operation was to be feasible... "

"...it is quite feasible to design the various components so that it can be disassembled easily and stored in a box that would fit in a 6x6 truck bed together with the equipment needed for re-assembly in the field. It could thus be transported by amphibious shipping and either heli-lifted or driven ashore by a 6x6 truck."

North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: An air-to-air right side view of an OV-10A Bronco aircraft.North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: An air-to-air right side view of an OV-10A Bronco aircraft.

The Bronco began with a specification approved by the U.S. Navy, Air Force and Army, a "tri-service" specification called "LARA" (the Light Armed Reconnaissance Aircraft), issued at the end of 1963. Retired Marine Corps aviators K.P. Rice and William H. Beckett originated the LARA concept as an aircraft with very small wingspans of around 20 feet that could land in nearly any small clearing and use the same ammunition and fuel as ground troops used. His "L2 VMA" concept also would have the aircraft ground-mobile so it could be co-located with ground units and not require runways and air bases.

LARA was based on a perceived need for a new type of "jungle fighting" versatile light attack and observation aircraft. Existing aircraft (the O-1 Bird Dog and O-2 Skymaster) were perceived as obsolescent, with too small a cargo capacity for this flexible role.

The specification called for a twin-engined, two-man aircraft that could carry at least 2,400 lb (1,100 kg) of cargo, six paratroops or stretchers, and be stressed for +8 and -3 Gs (basic aerobatic ability). It also had to be launchable from an aircraft carrier, fly at least 350 mph (560 km/h), take off in 800 feet (240 m) and convert to an amphibian.

Various armament had to be carried, including four 7.62 mm machine guns with 2,000 rounds, and external weapons including a 20 mm gun pod and Sidewinder missiles.

Eleven proposals were submitted, nine of them were the Grumman Model 134R tandem-seat version of the already fielded OV-1 Mohawk observation/attack aircraft (the Marine Corps dropped out of the program in 1958), Goodyear GA 39, the Beech PD-183, Douglas D-855, General Dynamics/Convair Model 48 Charger, the Helio 1320, the Lockheed CL-760, a Martin design and the North American/Rockwell NA-300.

In August 1964, the NA-300 was selected. A contract for seven prototype aircraft was issued in October 1964.

General Dynamics/Convair protested the decision and built a small-wing prototype of the Model 48 Charger anyway, which first flew on 29 November 1964. This was also a twin-boom aircraft that had a broadly similar layout to the Bronco. The Charger, while capable of outperforming the OV-10 in some respects, crashed on 19 October 1965 after 196 test flights. Convair dropped out of contention.

The Bronco started flying midway through the Charger's test program on 16 July 1965, and became one of the premiere COIN (COunter INsurgence) aircraft of the next 30 years. It failed to live up to Rice's L2 VMA concept because DoD insisted on 40 ft long wings which made it depend on airbases. Rice concludes:

"The original concept of a small, simple aircraft that could operate close to the supported troops had been almost completely eviscerated by the 'system.' The ability to operate from roads (20 ft span and 6.5 tread) had been ignored, and performance compromised by the short 30 ft span, the extra 1000 lb for the rough field landing gear and another 1000 lb of electronics. The "light, simple" airplane also had a full complement of instruments, ejection seats and seven external store stations. The concept of using ground ordnance and a bomb bay had been ignored, although it did have provisions for four M60 machine guns. In spite of this growth (almost double the size and weight of our home built), the YOV-10 still had great potential. It would not achieve the advantages of integration with the ground scheme of maneuver, but it did have capabilities at the low end of the performance envelope that were still valuable and unique."

The Bronco performed observation, forward air control, helicopter escort, armed reconnaissance, gunfire spotting, utility light air transport and limited ground attack. The Bronco has also performed aerial radiological reconnaissance, tactical air observation, artillery and naval gunfire spotting and airborne control of tactical air support operations, and front line, low-level aerial photography. A prototype in Vietnam designed to lay smoke was extremely successful, kept in service by evaluators for several months, and only reluctantly released, was not purchased due to a perceived lack of mission.

Design

Visually, the OV-10 has a central nacelle containing pilots and cargo, and twin booms containing twin turboprop engines. The visually-distinctive item of the aircraft is the combination of the twin booms, with the horizontal stabilizer that connects them. The North Vietnamese nickname for an OV-10 was chuong lon or "pigpen", perhaps because its tail empennage resembled a traditional Vietnamese pig enclosure.

The OV-10 can perform short takeoffs and landings on aircraft carriers and large deck amphibious assault ships without using catapults or arresting wires, although for safety and clearance reasons the latter is most often not permitted. The cockpit has extremely good visibility for a tandem pilot and co-pilot provided by a wrap-around "greenhouse." With the second seat removed, it can carry 1,452 kg (3,200 lb) of cargo, five paratroopers or two litter patients and an attendant. Empty weight was 3,161 kg (6,969 lb). Normal operating fueled weight, with two crew was 4,494 kg (9,908 lb). Maximum takeoff weight was 6,563 kg (14,466 lb).

North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: Top right side view of two OV-10 Bronco aircraft in flight. Photo from November 84 Airman Magazine.North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: Top right side view of two OV-10 Bronco aircraft in flight. Photo from November 84 Airman Magazine.

The bottom of the fuselage contains sponsons or "stub wings" that improves flight performance by decreasing aerodynamic drag underneath the fuselage. The sponsons were mounted horizontally on the prototype. Testing caused them to be redesigned for production aircraft. The downward angle assured that stores carried on the sponsons jettisoned cleanly. Normally four 7.62 mm M60C machine guns were carried on the sponsons with the M-60Cs accessed through a large forward-opening hatch on the top of each sponson. The sponsons also had four racks to carry bombs, pods or fuel. The wings outboard of the engines contain two additional racks, one per side. The sponsons are easy to remove, and most unarmed Broncos have now had their sponsons removed.

Racked armament in the Vietnam War was usually seven-shot 2.75 inch (70 mm) rocket pods with marker or high-explosive rockets, or 5 inch (127 mm) four-shot Zuni rocket pods. Bombs, ADSIDS air-delivered seismic sensors, Mk-6 battlefield illumination flares, and other stores were carried as well.

Operational history

The OV-10 served in the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy, as well as in the service of a number of other countries. A total of 81 0V-10 Broncos were ultimately lost during the course of the Vietnam War, to all causes: USAF - 64, USN - 7, and the USMC - 10.

USMC

It was first acquired by the U.S. Marine Corps. Each of the Marine Corps' two observation squadrons had 18 aircraft, nine OV-10As and nine OV-10Ds night observation aircraft. There was also a Marine Air Reserve observation squadron. The OV-10 was finally phased out of the Marine Corps in 1995.

The U.S. Marine Corps OV-10 Night Observation Gunship (NOGS) program modified four OV-10As to include a turreted forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor and turreted M197 20 mm gun slaved to the FLIR aimpoint. NOGS succeeded in Vietnam, but funds to convert more aircraft were not approved. NOGS evolved into the NOS OV-10D, which included a laser designator, but no gun. The U.S. Marine Corps lost 10 OV-10s during the Vietnam War to all causes.

Operation as forward air controllers in the U.S. Marines continued in both Active and Marine Air Reserve VMO squadrons through July 1994 and the Broncos were finally decommissioned in 1995. The decision to decommission the aircraft was in large part due to two USMC Broncos being shot down during Operation Desert Storm due to a lack of effective infrared countermeasures equipment. Forward air control passed mostly to ground units with laser designators and digital radios (GFACs) and the twin-seat F/A-18D Hornet. Most operational U.S. Broncos were reassigned to civil governments in the U.S., while some were sold to other countries.

US Air Force

The USAF acquired the Bronco primarily as a FAC aircraft. The first USAF OV-10As for combat arrived in Vietnam on 31 July 1968 as part of Operation Combat Bronco, an operation test and evaluation of the aircraft. These test aircraft were attached to the 19th Tactical Air Support Squadron, 504th Tactical Air Support Group at Bien Hoa Air Base in South Vietnam. The test roles included the full range of missions then assigned to FAC aircraft, including day and night strike direction, gunship direction, bomb damage assessment, visual reconnaissance, aerial artillery direction, and as escorts for aircraft engaged in Operation Ranch Hand. The aircraft's ability to generate smoke internally was utilized for strike direction and "in four specific instances under conditions of reduced visibility, the smoke was seen by strike aircrews before the Combat Bronco ended on 30 October 1968.

After the end of Combat Bronco, the USAF began to deploy larger numbers to the 19th TASS (Bien Hoa), 20th TASS (Da Nang), and for out-of-country missions to the 23d TASS (Nakhom Phanom in Thailand). The 23d TASS conducted missions in support of Operation Igloo White, Operation Prairie Fire/Daniel Boone, and other special operations.

In April 1969 the USAF conducted an operational exercise, called Misty Bronco, to evaluate the OV-10A's performance as a light strike aircraft. The results were positive and as of October 1969 all USAF OV-10As were to be armed with their internal M60C machine guns, which had generally be left out during the Combat Bronco evaluations and subsequent deployment. High explosive 2.75 in rockets were also authorized for use against ground targets.

In 1971, the 23d TASS's OV-10A Broncos at received modifications under project Pave Nail. Carried out by LTV Electrosystems during 1970, these modifications primarily included the addition of the Pave Spot target laser designator pod, as well as a specialized night periscope (replacing the initial starlight scopes that had been used for night time operations) and LORAN equipment. The callsign Nail was the radio handle of this squadron. After 1974 these aircraft were converted back to an unmodified OV-10A standard.

At least 157 OV-10As were delivered to the USAF before production ended in April 1969. The USAF lost 64 OV-10 Broncos during the war, to all causes. At the beginning of the 1990s the USAF had replaced their OV-10A fleet with OA-37B and OA-10A aircraft.

North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: DAYTON, Ohio -- North American Rockwell OV-10A cockpit at the National Museum of the United States Air Force. (U.S. Air Force photo)North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: DAYTON, Ohio -- North American Rockwell OV-10A cockpit at the National Museum of the United States Air Force. (U.S. Air Force photo)

US Navy

The U.S. Navy formed Light Attack Squadron FOUR (VAL-4), the Black Ponies on 3 January 1969, and operated in Vietnam from April 1969 through April 1972. The Navy used the Bronco OV-10A as a light ground attack aircraft, for interdiction of enemy logistics, and fire-support of Marines, SEALs and river boats. It succeeded in this role. The US Navy lost seven OV-10s during the Vietnam War, to various causes.

International use

Colombia

In 1991, the USAF provided the Colombian Air Force with 12 OV-10A aircraft. Later, three ex-USMC -A models were also acquired to provide parts support. Colombia still operates the aircraft in a COIN role against an active insurgency, and at least one aircraft has been lost in combat. Then upgraded to OV-10D version.

Currently the U.S. Department of State, in conjunction with the Government of Colombia, operates at least 4 OV-10s. One has been outfitted with spray equipment to spray poppy fields, one has munitions, and two are used for observation. When not deployed, these aircraft are home-based with the U.S. State Department's aircraft at Patrick AFB, Florida.

Indonesia

Indonesia purchased 12 OV-10F aircraft and operates them in COIN operations similar to the US Navy's Vietnam missions with their Broncos, but have retrofitted .50-calibre (12.7 mm) Browning heavy machine guns in place of the light 7.62 mm (.30 calibre) machine guns. These aircraft were vital in the invasion of East Timor and ensuing COIN operations.

Philippines

The Philippine Air Force (PAF) flies Broncos on search-and-rescue and COIN operations in various parts of the Philippines. Some of the aircraft were acquired from Thailand when that country phased out their OV-10Cs. The PAF Broncos are operated by the 16th and the 25th attack squadrons the 15th Strike Wing based in Sangley Point, Cavite. The first two women combat pilots in the PAF flew OV-10s with the 16th. This squadron flew anti-terrorist operations in the Jolo Islands.

Recent modifications by the PAF included upgrades in the engine and propeller (now sporting a four-bladed propeller), and flight controls and sensors.

A Service Life Extension Program has been started with all remaining serviceable OV-10s slated to go through the program. With the assistance of Marsh Aviation the PAF is currently overhauling and modernizing the airframe and its systems as well as replacing the increasingly difficult to maintain and service three bladed propeller with brand new units from Marsh Aviation and Hartzell. The program includes the replacement of the difficult to maintain three bladed propeller, fitting of new gearboxes to improve maintainability, zero timing the airframes and overhauling of the aircraft's subsystems to extend the service life of the airframe, improve serviceability and make the fleet easier to maintain. In place of the old three bladed propeller, a new 100 inch diameter propeller designed and manufactured by Hartzell has been fitted. In addition, the fleet is due to receive enough locally build 20 mm gun pods to equip all aircraft

Thailand

The Royal Thai Air Force purchased 32 new OV-10C aircraft in the early 1970s for COIN usage. Reportedly Broncos won most Thai bombing competitions until heavily automated F-5s became available. At one time Thailand even flew OV-10 Broncos as air-defense aircraft. In 2004, the RTAF transferred most of the OV-10s to the Philippines. The remaining aircraft are in the Tango Squadron Wing 41 Museum in Chiang Mai and the RTAF Museum in Bangkok.

North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: Four OV-10A Bronco aircraft from the 20th Tactical Air Support Squadron fly in an echelon left formation during a flight out of Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina.North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco: Four OV-10A Bronco aircraft from the 20th Tactical Air Support Squadron fly in an echelon left formation during a flight out of Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina.

Venezuela

The Venezuelan Air Force has operated a number of OV-10Es over the years. On 27 November 1992, the aircraft were widely used by mutinied officers who staged a Coup d'Etat against former President Carlos Andrés Pérez. The rebels dropped bombs and launched rockets against Police and government buildings in Caracas. Several planes were shot down during the uprising.

Civilian use

BLM

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) acquired seven OV-10As for use as air attack aircraft, including the YOV-10A prototype. In this role, they would lead firefighting air tankers through their intended flight path over their target area. The aircraft were operated in their basic military configurations, but with their ejection seats disabled. The aircraft's existing smoke system was used to mark the path for the following air tankers. With the age of the aircraft, spare parts were difficult to obtain, and the BLM retired their fleet in 1999. CALFIRE

The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF or CALFIRE) has acquired a number of OV-10As, including the six surviving aircraft from the BLM and 13 U.S. Navy in 1993 to replace their existing Cessna O-2 Skymasters as air attack aircraft. The CAL FIRE Broncos fly with a crew of two, a pilot and the Air Attack Officer, whose job it is to coordinate all aerial assets on a fire with the Incident Commander on the ground. Thus, besides serving as a tanker lead-in aircraft, the OV-10A is also the aerial platform from which the entire air operation is coordinated.

Variants

* YOV-10A - The original prototype.

* OV-10A - Original production version.

* OV-10B - Produced for Germany to use as target tugs, with a target towing pod was mounted underneath the fuselage. A clear dome replaced the rear cargo door. The rear seat was moved to the cargo bay to look backwards out the dome.

o OV-10B(Z) - A variation of the German target tug, with one J85-GE-4 turbojet mounted in a nacelle above the fuselage. A total of 18 aircraft were supplied to the Germans,

* OV-10C- Export version for Thailand; based on the OV-10A.

* OV-10E - Export version for Venezuela; based on the OV-10A.

* OV-10F - Export version for Indonesia; based on the OV-10A.

* YOV-10D - The prototype used to developed OV-10D Bronco.

* OV-10D - The second generation Bronco developed by the U.S. Marine Corps. It was an extensively modified A model airframe. The D added a powerful Forward-Looking Infrared night-vision system with a camera mounted in a turret under an extended nose. It is easy to differentiate a D model from an A. The D has a long nose with a ball turret underneath, while the A has a short rounded nose. The D also has bigger engines, so it has larger fiberglass props that can be distinguished by their rounded tips. The A has squared-off aluminum props. Other noticeable external differences are the square chaff dispensers midway down the booms on the D model (often covered with a plate when not in use) and infrared-suppressive exhaust stacks (they take air in the front and mix it with the exhaust before it exits, to reduce the heat given off and thus the ability of a heat-seeking missile to track the aircraft). The D model began life as the NOGS program.

o OV-10D+ - The next USMC upgrade, consisting of -A and -D aircraft being extensively reworked at MCAS Cherry Point Naval Air Rework Facility with new wiring and strengthened wings. Engine instrumentation was changed from round dials to tape readouts.

* OV-10M - A modified, four-bladed version of OV-10A by Marsh Aviation for the Philippine Air Force.

Specifications

OV-10A

General characteristics

* Crew: 2

* Length: 41 ft 7 in (12.67 m)

* Wingspan: 40 ft 0 in (12.19 m)

* Height: 15 ft 2 in (4.62 m)

* Empty weight: 6,893 lb (3,127 kg)

* Max takeoff weight: 14,444 lb (6,552 kg)

* Powerplant: 2× Garrett T76-G-410/412 turboprop, 715 hp (533 kW) each

Performance

* Maximum speed: 281 mph (452 km/h)

* Range: 576 mi (358 km)

* Service ceiling 24,000 ft (7,315 m)

Armament

* Guns: 4x 7.62x51mm M60C machine guns

* Total stores stations: 5 fuselage and 2 underwing

* Bombs: Bombs up to 500 lb

* Rockets: 7- or 19-tube launchers for 2.75" FFARs or 2- or 4-tube launchers for 5" FFARs

* Missiles: AIM-9 Sidewinder (Wing pylons only)

* Other: SUU-11/A or Mk 4 Mod 0 gun pods

OV-10D

General characteristics

* Crew: 2

* Length: 44 ft 0 in (13.41 m)

* Wingspan: 40 ft 0 in (12.19 m)

* Height: 15 ft 2 in (4.62 m)

* Empty weight: 6,893 lb (3,127 kg)

* Max takeoff weight: 14,444 lb (6,552 kg)

* Powerplant: 2× Garrett T76-G-420/421 turboprop, 1,040 hp (775.5 kW) each

Performance

* Maximum speed: 288 mph (463 km/h)

* Range: 1,382 mi (2,224 km)

* Service ceiling 30,000 ft (9,159 m)

Armament

* Guns: 1x 20 mm M197 cannon (YOV-10D) or 4x 7.62x51mm M60C machine guns (OV-10D/D+)

* Total stores stations: 5 fuselage (OV-10D/D+ only) and 2 underwing

* Bombs: Bombs up to 500 lb

* Rockets: 7- or 19-tube launchers for 2.75" FFARs/2.75" WAFARs or 2- or 4-tube launchers for 5" FFARs or WAFARs

* Missiles: AIM-9 Sidewinder (Wing pylons only)

More photos: North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco photo gallery

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